Gotra is the lineage or clan associated with a Hindu family. This custom of widow-remarriage was later on looked upon as amark of social inferiority by some members of the caste especially because it was contrary to the custom prevalent among the Brahmins. Caste has however done one thing. Who is to defend the liberty of the Shudra and for the matter of that, of the Brahmin and the Vaishya when the person who is robbing him of it is the Kshatriya? It has gone deeper and has poisoned the mutual relations of the sub-castes as well. Similarity in habits and customs, beliefs and thoughts there is.
I think that Socialism offers the only true remedy for this as well as other problems. To them I am a snake in their garden. They do not regard caste as a religious dogma.
What replies to give to these questions is a matter which I must leave to the Mandal. As a matter of fact Caste system came into being long after the different races of India had commingled in blood and culture. Religion does not compel the Non-Hindus to take the same attitude towards caste. Whether the Hindu religion was or was not a missionary religion has been a controversial issue. One class consists of political reformers and the other of the socialists.
They felt quite naturally a greater urge to remove such evils as enforced widowhood, child marriages etc. Lower caste people have been given reservations, so that they can occupy higher authority positions in government institutions. In preparation of a Hindu marriage before coming to any decision, gotra of the two families is checked. As a king, Rama was bound to maintain Chaturvarnya.
This thing will take some time even a few hundred more years, but it will be eradicated. The ancestors of the present-day English fought on one side or the other in the wars of the Roses and the Cromwellian War. I have criticised the Hindus. The assurance of a socialist leading the revolution that he does not believe in caste, I am sure, will not suffice. When it comes to marriage, then caste system comes into play. This custom of widow-remarriage was later on looked upon as amark of social inferiority by some members of the caste especially because it was contrary to the custom prevalent among the Brahmins.
Again, in the matter of food there is no similarity between the Brahmins of the Deccan and Southern India, who are vegetarians and the Brahmins of Kashmir and Bengal who are non-vegetarians. Caste is, therefore, the real explanation as to why the Hindu has let the savage remain a savage in the midst of his civilization without blushing or without feeling any sense of remorse or repentance. But I must not hesitate to speak out my mind. But in no civilized society is division of labour accompanied by this unnatural division of labourers into watertight compartments. Apart from the questions whether their exclusion from the new Constitution is proper or improper, the fact still remains that these aborigines have remained in their primitive uncivilized State in a land which boasts of a civilization thousands of years old.
The three classes, Brahmins, Kshatriyas and Vaishyas although not very happy in their mutual relationship managed to work by compromise. The Hindus often complain of the isolation and exclusiveness of a gang or a clique and blame them for anti-social spirit. It is a mode of survival of which every right-minded Hindu, who is not afraid to own up the truth, will feel ashamed. Looked at from another point of view this stratification of occupations which is the result of the Caste System is positively pernicious. If we apply these considerations to castes among Mohammedans, Sikhs and Christians on the one hand and to castes among Hindus on the other, you will find that caste among Non-Hindus is fundamentally different from caste among Hindus.
Why is it that the Republican Constitution of Rome had these provisions which, as I said, resemble so strongly the provisions of the Communal Award? The Hindus, therefore, are not merely an assortment of castes but they are so many warring groups each living for itself and for its selfish ideal. This indifference, this thinning of its ranks was soon followed by active hostility from the politicians. That is one of the reasons why we are asked by the Arya Samajists to consider its claims. In Poona, the capital of the Peshwa, the untouchable was required to carry, strung from his waist, a broom to sweep away from behind the dust he treaded on lest a Hindu walking on the same should be polluted.
Inter-dependence of one class on another class is inevitable. That today it is not a missionary religion is also a fact which must be accepted. Why do millions of paupers in India sell their trifling trinkets which constitute their only wealth and go to Benares and Mecca? No wonder individual Hindus have not had the courage to assert their independence by breaking the barriers of caste. Any objection to Liberty? I have personally experienced this many times.
Next of Sinful
But that is only another way of stating that it was the social problem of Caste between the Catholics and Protestants, which prevented the solution of the political problem. There have been social revolutions in other countries of the world. That is why Rama did not inflict on Shambuka a lesser punishment. I fail to see any connection between the two. In doing this, I will follow Mr.
It was his duty therefore to kill Shambuka, the Shudra, who had transgressed his class and wanted to be a Brahmin. It has gone deeper and has poisoned the mutual relations of the sub-castes as well. How is it then that the Social Reform Party last the battle? Hindu society as such does not exist. But it is also true that he cannot do without them. Physically speaking the Hindus are a C3 people.
- It is said that the object of Caste was to preserve purity of race and purity of blood. What is to happen, if the Brahmins, Vaishyas and Kshatriyas fail to pursue knowledge, to engage in economic enterprise and to be efficient soldiers which are their respective functions? If so, to what extent?
- The recent discussion about the excluded and partially included areas has served to draw attention to the position of what are called the aboriginal tribes in India. This anti-social spirit, this spirit of protecting its own interests is as much a marked feature of the different castes in their isolation from one another as it is of nations in their isolation. The literature of the Hindus is full of caste genealogies in which an attempt is made to give a noble origin to one caste and an ignoble origin to other castes. So, people at that time must have decided to allot a job to a person based on which family he is born instead of his Janma Patrika as the next generation carries genes of the ancestors.
There were no restrictions on marriage between the persons of two different castes. For slavery does not merely mean a legalized form of subjection. To allow this Chaturvarnya, based on worth to be designated by such stinking labels of Brahmin, Kshatriya, Vaishya, Shudra, indicative of social divisions based on birth, is a snare. The idea underlying Sanghalan is to remove from the mind of the Hindu that timidity and cowardice which so painfully make him off from the Mohammedan and the Sikh and which have led him to adopt the low ways of treachery and cunning for protecting himself. For an individual as well as for a society, there is a gulf between merely living and living worthily.
It is a direct and frontal attack, and I congratulate you upon a collect diagnosis and more upon your having shown the courage to tell the Hindus what is really wrong with them. The teachers, scientists or thinkers category which continues to work for the progress and fitness of the whole society — so these are brahmins. He tells you that he is a Mohammedan or a Sikh as the case may be.
Next of Single
Between them lie all sorts of associative arrangements of lesser and larger scope, families, friendship, co-operative associations, business combines, political parties, bands of thieves and robbers. To do so is to misunderstand the essentials which go to make up a society. Consequently, the utilization of the qualities of individuals is incompatible with their stratification by classes, since the qualities of individuals are so variable.